In the football tournament the two teams include team A and B. the match started at 4pm and ended at 6pm in the evening. Within the first 15minutes of the first half team B scored 1against team A. but shortly in 30mins time to the end of  first half,  team A retaliated with two goals against team B. In total the match ended Team A 2: Team B1in the first half. Team A topped up by two more goals in the second half totaling to 4. Team B added 1 goal in the second half totaling to 2 goals.

The match was spectator by a mass number of people at the freedom square. The was officiated by Hon Angelina accompanied by the SPLM secretary to the Eastern Lake state, MP for Yirol West constituency who was a former captain for Team B the winning team, Director for Sport and culture. The estimated spectators for the match were 1000 individuals.

At the end of the match, AMA has presented some awards a trophy and cash reimbursement to the two teams based on their performances through Hon. Angelina the Peace and Reconciliation adviser for the Governor. Team A went home with a trophy and 15000 SSD and Team B with 10,000 SSD only. In addition to trophy and cash provided to the two teams, AMA also provided two sets of uniform of different colors green and white, Team A when with a white color and Team B when home with the green color uniform. AMA also provided two sets (a pair of yellow for referees and red for line men) of uniforms to both the referees and line men, socks and three balls to the teams.

THE MONTHLY FORUM THAT WAS HELD IN YIROL EAST IN MARCH 2018. AMA designed the monthly forum into her program to allow the community to interact among themselves with their local authorities, humanitarian organizations and other stakeholders within the community. This gave them the opportunity to discuss issues that are affecting the community and come up with a joint amicable solution that will allow the community to achieve shared results. AMA also wanted to create a platform for the community to interact with their local authorities, do a stock take and also share challenges that the community in Yirol are facing. The local authorities had an opportunity to discuss different topics with the community. This enabled the local authority to get grievances within the community and formulate a response mechanism. The local authority had an opportunity to update the community on the activities being undertaken within the community.

On the other hand, the Humanitarians had an opportunity to update the community on what they are doing and geographical areas they are covering. They also had a platform to identify the needs and challenges within the community. This interaction enabled the humanitarian actors to consolidate efforts and formulate a joint response mechanism within this community. The community had an opportunity to highlight needs and challenges that informed the humanitarian actors on how to respond to them. The platform also sought to increase and enhance relationship between the community, the local authorities and humanitarian actors.

Participants:
The monthly forum was held at the ECS CHURCH of Nyang Payam in Yirol East County. We drew the members from the local authority, church leaders, GOSS and neighbouring communities in Yirol East County and the community at large. We had over 358 participants in the monthly forum and 70% of them were women. 

THE ENVIRONMENT FOR AMA

2.1.1 AMA’sPoliticalEnvironment;

The period of this strategy planning was in  time when political landscape was in chaos.SPLM is divided into three groupings. SPLM in government, SPLM in opposition and  SPLM- former political detainees. There are other fifteen political parties who are spectators with very little contribution.

The political class is also divided asymmetrically between those who support proposed federal system of governance and those who want the status quo retained. There are also many proposals to get out of the current political, security and ethnic conflict.

Governance especially of Upper Nile regional states have been made impossible by the conflict. Most of the time the leadership of the upper Nile regional states is hosted in Juba due to insecurity. There is a lot of desperation in the country with SPLM running registration drives to assume relevance. The other 15 small parties seem helpless in giving any meaningful suggestions on the way forward. Useful proposal have been made by individual citizen and the Diaspora.

While negotiations continue in the Ethiopian capital Addisababa, there are no indicators solutions are anywhere near.

The foreign and information ministers have conducted round the globe public relations campaigns. This does o seem to have convinced that there was an attempted coup.

The 11 political detainees were released after several appearances in court. There are no clear political strategies to resolve the political conflict.

On the other hand the crisis present south Sudan with an opportunity to reform her political and governance systems and structures for the better, this could be done in a way which ensures political and social inclusiveness in governance. Other political issues identified during the strategic analyses includes in the following;

1)  Poor democracy within parties particularly within SPLM.

2)  Monopoly of political space by SPLM.

3)  Thin Line between SPLM & SPLA and the fact that SPLM is the ruling party & SPLA is the official national army.

4)  Militarized Political landscape.

5)  Lacking administrative body dealing with registration and regulation of political parties.

6)  Poor citizenry participation in political decisions.

7)  Politics around personalities and tribes instead of Issues and national interest.

8)  Constitution with conflicting clauses with powers giving citizens power to elect leaders and the same constitution giving president the right to remove elected leaders from their constitutional without any procedures and structures.

 2.1. 2 AMA’s EconomicEnvironment.

At the time when the analysis for this strategic plan was being carried out, the economic environment was as chaotic as the political environment. There was high inflation rate associated with the loss of value of south Sudanese pounds to hard currency. One thing which has been of economic interest is the fact that hard currency has been in short

supply in the market. Most banks are not able to change from local currency to hard currency. It has not been clear if this is a government policy in attempt to stamp on investors taking money out of the county or market focus with short supply of hard currency. This has created a situation where the pound has lost to the dollar for example, United States dollar was exchanging at 1usd to 5 SSP. Trader and investors had to access hard currency from informal exchange kiosks or dollar hawkers in Juba

town or at the exit point except at the airport there was no dollar. In the upper Nile regions good and services were cut out by conflict and no goods are reaching the major towns of Malakal and Bentiu. Bor town has little activity with expensive goods due to expensive logistics not only due to insecurity but also bad and neglected roads. All the government efforts have been concentrated on military logistics among other emergency areas. Roads and other infrastructure have been ignored. This makes all economic and social activities very expensive.

Unemployment too is a serious economic issue today. The issue is not lack of opportunities but that youth have been idle and those coming from colleges and high school are not finding opportunities appropriate for them. The government s starting from a difficult position   with structural adjustments where it has to reduce it workforce.

In an environment of no industries, business is low and developing, agriculture sector is subsistence, and those retrenched find it hard to find jobs or businesses to do. This however has been seen as case of nepotism and tribalism.

 

Other key economic issues facing the region include;

1)  More imports than exports leading to trade imbalance and flight of foreign currency.

2)  Overreliance on oil revenue (98% to fund government operations) and neglected agricultural, mining, trade& entrepreneurship, wildlife and tourism, timber sectors with mammoth potential.

3)  Badly managed water sector relying on water trucking (foreign controlled) instead of water works piping distribution models. This compromises safety, reliability and sustainability of water supplies.

4)  Corruption and underdevelopment, Lack of power and unemployment.

5)  Destroyed schools by conflict or occupied by armed forces.

2.1.3AMA’sPhysicalEnvironmentalIssues.

The lack of power generation has caused business and households to seek alternative power supply. Each household and businesses have gasoline run generator. This has created a lot of air and noise pollution in Juba and all other major towns.The city and town councils have not organized for water supply. Water is trucked from

the river and other sources t the settlements. This compromises sanitation and hygiene

as water is not adequately supplied. The trucks while filling and distributing water create water spillages which mess the environment.

Due to long standing war, communal land ownership and pastoralist, environmental conservation has been neglected. Communities and individuals kept many livestock

way beyond the carrying capacities of the ecosystems. The trend over the years has always been development of grasslands and discouraging any growth of trees. The resulting effect is plains without trees and during the dry spell appear like desert without

sand. The cultural practices of burning have affected the natural forests and many

places which would be wooded today are either bare or grassland. In Malakal, Bentiu and Bors town, planning initiatives have not included drainage and sewage systems. There no adequate drains and when it rains the town is flooded, messy and very poor in hygiene. Hygiene has been compromised as there no waste disposal facilities, toilets are very few and personal hygiene is compromised.

The long standing war in Sudan which employed heavy machinery have chased away many wild animal like elephants, of significant has been the effect of migratory animals like the antelope of Boma which used to make beautiful processions as they move to the Boma hills, all these were disrupted by the war. With signing of Machakos protocol

on cessation of hostilities many communities sought to resettle, this trend has continued to date and many are still resettling. This made demand for poles and grass very high.So, in some places especially upper Nile, almost all trees young and old were cut and the pressure is still on. Oil prospecting , pipeline development and developing road networks to the oil field too has upset the community patterns of settlement, access to fisheries, grazing and water

resources.  These activities too have polluted the environment as big explosives are

used in prospecting. Water aquifers have been affected and have also made

underground water inaccessible. Some communities have reported loss of wild animal like Jonglei canal created a problem of the communities.  It attempted to separate communities and there were no ways of crossing the canal and this would have separated the communities and affected wildlife and livestock movement. A lot of wild animal died when they were trying to cross the Jonglei canal. Other key issues on environment have included;

  1. Overcrowding around limited safe water points and cause erosion.
  2. Environmental degradation has posed a serious danger in sanitation.
  3. Land mines have really polluted the environment and thee are resources that are not available for production because to the land mines. Routes have become longer as they try to maneuver and avoid land mine contamination.
  4. Wanton deforestation.
  5. Oil based mine spoils.
  6. wildlife human conflict
  7. Soil and wind erosion.

2.1.4 AMA’sSocial Environment.

The social environment in south Sudan today is disturbed by conflict, maiming, displacement, death and trauma.  The political conflict that erupted within SPLM in mid December 2013 has polarized the country. This polarization has taken both ethnic and ideological dimensions. At a glance it is seen as conflict between Dinka and Nuer but a closer looks reveal issues including governance ideology. The relationship between these 2 tribes in social places and as neighbors has been strained by the conflict. The social interaction that existed is reduced; business across the territories is interrupted.

Again the intermarriage relationship has been placed in dilemma as they ponder how to manage their relations across the ethnic divide.

Ethnicity constructed around Stereotypes brings tensions and conflict. In this region and in south Sudan in general when a kin is marrying a person is caused to make a contribution both socially and materially. Relatives come in each others aid by reason of being a kinsman. This was initially used for good intentions until politics and politicians,

 

ethnic chiefs and war came in. In pastoral communities were the cow is the centre of livelihood and the raiding others is considered an act of bravery, raiding is organized and encouraged.

“Ethnic identification is a sensitive, emotional issue, one that is easily manipulated.

Ethnicity can become part of the transition phenomena when people do not know how  to relate swiftly and correctly to rapid political change. In such times of uncertainty, it is easy general secretary of the National Council for Democracy in Africa’,

Politicians and warlords took advantage of this social fiber and used it for furthering their interests. So clans and ethnic groups raided each other and bad blood developed among the clans and clans started fighting. Before the events of December 15th 2013 there were conflicts mainly in Jonglei, Unity and Lake States these conflicts were related  and revenge.Overtime there evolved a social group of people not about tribes but about class and belonging to a social group (elites) of people who holds positions of power and respect in the government and in the society. They include military, the professionals (intellectuals), chiefs, elders, commissioners and governors, ministers, church leaders among others. This is opinion leaders and communities listen to them and hold their opinion in high esteem. However this group often misuses this position to exclude other who are not in their class and also that they could turn into corruption and bad practices not expected of them.

The communities also have age old traditional believes that are hindering education in the region and particularly girl child education. Girls are meant for bride price and education is considered pollution. For along time cultural conditioning has dictated that,women concentrate on reproductive roles of rearing children and looking after them.

They are considered children and their rights and opportunities are limited to those of children. They are socially excluded from decision making processes and access to productive resources. Those in authority consider themselves to have exclusive right to make decision in the exclusion of others. There is such exclusion. This environment does not give room for good governance.

The conflict over many years caused displacement and families were scattered to all over the world. People have learnt cultures, languages and different value systems so the way they do things have changed and marked a departure from the way social issues in the home societies are done. This has lead to culture shock, broken families and bitterness. Returns are many and increasing. Their ways of live changed and conformed to those of the countries and regions where they stayed during the war. They return to a totally new environment and some are finding it hard to cope with the culture and underdevelopment in this region. They are looked at with suspicion as threat to community on HIV aids. Other issues on social environment include;

1)  Early and forced marriage.

2)  Separation of families due to displacement, domestic violence conflict.

3)  High bride price, cattle raiding and revenge.

4)  Markings, tattoos which reinforce identity community-hood.

.2.1.5AMA’sTechnological and Information Management Environment.

Technological advancement has been witnessed in a small extend in the towns and the capital in Juba. Service providers MTN,  vivacell, , Gemtel, Zain among others have made breakthrough to offer limited service to town communities. People can now make telephone contacts. However this advancement is only employed on limited range within towns. The majority of rural communities have no access to network coverage and traditional runner, long range radios and V-sats and Satellite thuraya phones are used by a few government and NGO staff. The state governments are also starting to employ limited technology use with computers installed in offices and some with internet access through use of satellite. Networking and database technologies are yet to be employed to make work lighter.  Opportunities presented by technological advancement have not been taken. A few people are seen selling mobile phones, cyber cafes, but majority of these people are either form north Sudan or from the east African region. Technological advancement and the opportunities that came with it has not dawned on the local communities ad entrepreneurs. We are yet to see monetary transactions on mobile like that of safaricom

in Kenya, which has employed thousands of people and eased monetary transfers. We are yet to see local entrepreneurs dealing mobile phones and accessories a sector that employs thousand of people in the east African region. Farmers and farm produce trades are yet to take advantage of mobile technology because the framework has not been developed. FAO and Ministry of agriculture and forestry has tried and came up with communities.

There however exists abundant functional literacy in gun and ammunition technology. Someone in a rural village with no formal education can easily dismantle and assemble an AK 47 with the ease of a skilled professional. These people can including women can handle a gun with very high competence.

Other technology issues;

1)  Poor and government controlled telecommunication with mobile network and internet.

2)  Youth access to internet based technologies in limited areas.

3)  Patronized print media.

4)  Poor computer functional literacy.

 

2.1.6AMA’s Security Environment. 

The  security  environment is war  qualified  by  over 1000  deaths. It is estimated  far over 10,000  deaths, 1.5M  displacement  100,000  in UN  camps. The  political conflict within SPLM  quickly spread  to  4  states  including  Juba. The  increased  military operations by  both  SPLA  and  SPLA  in opposition  allowed  leakage  of  weapons to  the communities  fueling  for more conflict  especially in Lakes  state  and  greater Akobo counties. Generally, the conflict increased access to guns and ammunitions and rekindle community conflicts that were ongoing and latent. Killings in Juba and elsewhere rekindle historical rivalries between Dinka and Nuer. There is hate, stereotyping, resentment and fight with slightest provocation.

Notwithstanding the country political competition,, there is resource-based conflict within communities, between communities and across states before December 2013. These communities’ the most affected by conflict mainly involving the Lou Nuer of greater Akobo and the Murle of Pibor over cattle raids, child abduction and resultant vicious cycle of revenge. The Wunlit triangle which includes Warrap, Unity and Lakes states was seen as the second with issues of cattle raids, killings, revenge and political conflict involving Tonjeast, Tonj south, Mapel, Mayiandit, Koch, Payinjiar and Mayom counties among other. Smaller scale conflicts involved land and border disputes across entire south Sudan.

The  political conflict started  in Juba  on  December the  15th  and  quickly spread  to mainly  Upper Nile states, the  SPLA  in Jongolei, Unity  and  Upper Nile divided-up and fought within itself on  ethnic  lines. In  Wunlit  triangle,  the  disputed  Madol Payam  was quickly  attacked  from  Tonj East.  Payinjiar was also attacked. Inter-clan  fighting intensified  in Lake  states involving  Awarial  County, Yirol East,  Yirol West,  Cuibet,Rumbek center. In Warrap, Tonj East Tonj north and Gogrial .

In Upper Nile, Bailiet county was devastated by combined white army from Nasir and Lou Nuer, Shilluk kingdom was also devastated by attackers from old Fangak. In totality, no county got spared in the whole greater Upper Nile with exception of Maiwut and Longachok counties on Ethiopian borders partly because of their distance from center of conflict. While in basis,greet ourselves in the streets of Nairobi, though we understand the degree of grievances and anger, since their relatives were killed in Juba, many of the Nuer students dropped out of schools and colleges because of shortage of school fees,families moved out of rented houses and went to refugees camp in Kakuma. The otherproblem is whoever tries to work for peace is labeled by other colleague as a traitor.

Despite this there are some individuals and institutions working for reconciliation..There has been  inter  and  intra  clan  conflict over resources at the  micro  level.Among the common causes have been cattle raiding, rapes, girl eloping and failure to return dowry  after  divorce.  Although  these  may  appear of  lower importance  to  an outsider they account for 70 % of insecurity in regions where AMA is operating

Other Key security issues include;

1)  Grievances, revenge, greed, cattle raiding.

2)  Proliferation of arms.

3)  Gender based conflict and domestic violence.

4)  Foreign forces in the country.

5)  A lot of military presence in the communities.

6)  Minors recruited in the military.

2.1.7 Geophysical Positioning of Upper Nile region  and South Sudan .

The geophysical positioning of south Sudan and Upper Nile region presents some challenges. The long term borderline dispute with Sudan creates vulnerabilities for south Sudan and Upper Nile region in particular. In the recent past the insecurity in Southern Kordofan spilled to Unity state and other northern frontier. Sudan bombed areas in the upper Nile region in pursuit of SPLM north rebels.

The resource based conflict created by the transhumance nature of Sudanese Arab Misserya  who  has  annual transhumance  from  Sudan  to  Upper  Nile  region  creating conflict over resources, environmental degradation  due to over grazing. This happens due to the region being near Sudan and in their route of migration. The landlocked south Sudan has to pumps her petroleum through Sudan. Due their political and other reasons this project suffers stoppages and economic losses.

 

Upper Nile region  is the  area  with  most of oil. This has  made  the  communities  to suffer conflict and pollution due to oil prospecting. Other issues related to geophysical positioning include;

1)  Upper Nile is flat and prone to floods.

2)  Sudanese refugees in Ida and Maban risk security of communities as Sudanese authorities pursue and punish rebels.

3)  Positioning of upper Nile far from juba makes logistics and supplies expensive.

4)  The livestock based livelihoods within all the communities in the region and neighborhood makes cattle raiding a relied on enterprise and systemic cause of conflict and revenge.

5)  Regional placement to eastern Africa made Uganda military to intervene and IGAD mandated or obliged to intervene in the conflict in south Sudan.

6)  Issues of LRA and JEM attacks in Bentiu,- UXO  found in Bentiu had indicated that they were made in Sudan, Militias in Nuba and issues of  SPLM north.

THE MONTHLY FORUM THAT WAS HELD IN YIROL EAST IN MARCH 2018. AMA designed the monthly forum into her program to allow the community to interact among themselves with their local authorities, humanitarian organizations and other stakeholders within the community. This gave them the opportunity to discuss issues that are affecting the community and come up with a joint amicable solution that will allow the community to achieve shared results. AMA also wanted to create a platform for the community to interact with their local authorities, do a stock take and also share challenges that the community in Yirol are facing. The local authorities had an opportunity to discuss different topics with the community. This enabled the local authority to get grievances within the community and formulate a response mechanism. The local authority had an opportunity to update the community on the activities being undertaken within the community.

On the other hand, the Humanitarians had an opportunity to update the community on what they are doing and geographical areas they are covering. They also had a platform to identify the needs and challenges within the community. This interaction enabled the humanitarian actors to consolidate efforts and formulate a joint response mechanism within this community. The community had an opportunity to highlight needs and challenges that informed the humanitarian actors on how to respond to them. The platform also sought to increase and enhance relationship between the community, the local authorities and humanitarian actors.

Participants:
The monthly forum was held at the ECS CHURCH of Nyang Payam in Yirol East County. We drew the members from the local authority, church leaders, GOSS and neighbouring communities in Yirol East County and the community at large. We had over 358 participants in the monthly forum and 70% of them were women. THE ENVIRONMENT FOR AMA

2.1.1 AMA’sPoliticalEnvironment;

The period of this strategy planning was in  time when political landscape was in chaos.SPLM is divided into three groupings. SPLM in government, SPLM in opposition and  SPLM- former political detainees. There are other fifteen political parties who are spectators with very little contribution.

The political class is also divided asymmetrically between those who support proposed federal system of governance and those who want the status quo retained. There are also many proposals to get out of the current political, security and ethnic conflict.

Governance especially of Upper Nile regional states have been made impossible by the conflict. Most of the time the leadership of the upper Nile regional states is hosted in Juba due to insecurity. There is a lot of desperation in the country with SPLM running registration drives to assume relevance. The other 15 small parties seem helpless in giving any meaningful suggestions on the way forward. Useful proposal have been made by individual citizen and the Diaspora.

While negotiations continue in the Ethiopian capital Addisababa, there are no indicators solutions are anywhere near.

The foreign and information ministers have conducted round the globe public relations campaigns. This does o seem to have convinced that there was an attempted coup.

The 11 political detainees were released after several appearances in court. There are no clear political strategies to resolve the political conflict.

On the other hand the crisis present south Sudan with an opportunity to reform her political and governance systems and structures for the better, this could be done in a way which ensures political and social inclusiveness in governance. Other political issues identified during the strategic analyses includes in the following;

1)  Poor democracy within parties particularly within SPLM.

2)  Monopoly of political space by SPLM.

3)  Thin Line between SPLM & SPLA and the fact that SPLM is the ruling party & SPLA is the official national army.

4)  Militarized Political landscape.

5)  Lacking administrative body dealing with registration and regulation of political parties.

6)  Poor citizenry participation in political decisions.

7)  Politics around personalities and tribes instead of Issues and national interest.

8)  Constitution with conflicting clauses with powers giving citizens power to elect leaders and the same constitution giving president the right to remove elected leaders from their constitutional without any procedures and structures.

 2.1. 2 AMA’s EconomicEnvironment.

At the time when the analysis for this strategic plan was being carried out, the economic environment was as chaotic as the political environment. There was high inflation rate associated with the loss of value of south Sudanese pounds to hard currency. One thing which has been of economic interest is the fact that hard currency has been in short

supply in the market. Most banks are not able to change from local currency to hard currency. It has not been clear if this is a government policy in attempt to stamp on investors taking money out of the county or market focus with short supply of hard currency. This has created a situation where the pound has lost to the dollar for example, United States dollar was exchanging at 1usd to 5 SSP. Trader and investors had to access hard currency from informal exchange kiosks or dollar hawkers in Juba

town or at the exit point except at the airport there was no dollar. In the upper Nile regions good and services were cut out by conflict and no goods are reaching the major towns of Malakal and Bentiu. Bor town has little activity with expensive goods due to expensive logistics not only due to insecurity but also bad and neglected roads. All the government efforts have been concentrated on military logistics among other emergency areas. Roads and other infrastructure have been ignored. This makes all economic and social activities very expensive.

Unemployment too is a serious economic issue today. The issue is not lack of opportunities but that youth have been idle and those coming from colleges and high school are not finding opportunities appropriate for them. The government s starting from a difficult position   with structural adjustments where it has to reduce it workforce.

In an environment of no industries, business is low and developing, agriculture sector is subsistence, and those retrenched find it hard to find jobs or businesses to do. This however has been seen as case of nepotism and tribalism.

 

Other key economic issues facing the region include;

1)  More imports than exports leading to trade imbalance and flight of foreign currency.

2)  Overreliance on oil revenue (98% to fund government operations) and neglected agricultural, mining, trade& entrepreneurship, wildlife and tourism, timber sectors with mammoth potential.

3)  Badly managed water sector relying on water trucking (foreign controlled) instead of water works piping distribution models. This compromises safety, reliability and sustainability of water supplies.

4)  Corruption and underdevelopment, Lack of power and unemployment.

5)  Destroyed schools by conflict or occupied by armed forces.

2.1.3AMA’sPhysicalEnvironmentalIssues.

The lack of power generation has caused business and households to seek alternative power supply. Each household and businesses have gasoline run generator. This has created a lot of air and noise pollution in Juba and all other major towns.The city and town councils have not organized for water supply. Water is trucked from

the river and other sources t the settlements. This compromises sanitation and hygiene

as water is not adequately supplied. The trucks while filling and distributing water create water spillages which mess the environment.

Due to long standing war, communal land ownership and pastoralist, environmental conservation has been neglected. Communities and individuals kept many livestock

way beyond the carrying capacities of the ecosystems. The trend over the years has always been development of grasslands and discouraging any growth of trees. The resulting effect is plains without trees and during the dry spell appear like desert without

sand. The cultural practices of burning have affected the natural forests and many

places which would be wooded today are either bare or grassland. In Malakal, Bentiu and Bors town, planning initiatives have not included drainage and sewage systems. There no adequate drains and when it rains the town is flooded, messy and very poor in hygiene. Hygiene has been compromised as there no waste disposal facilities, toilets are very few and personal hygiene is compromised.

The long standing war in Sudan which employed heavy machinery have chased away many wild animal like elephants, of significant has been the effect of migratory animals like the antelope of Boma which used to make beautiful processions as they move to the Boma hills, all these were disrupted by the war. With signing of Machakos protocol

on cessation of hostilities many communities sought to resettle, this trend has continued to date and many are still resettling. This made demand for poles and grass very high.So, in some places especially upper Nile, almost all trees young and old were cut and the pressure is still on. Oil prospecting , pipeline development and developing road networks to the oil field too has upset the community patterns of settlement, access to fisheries, grazing and water

resources.  These activities too have polluted the environment as big explosives are

used in prospecting. Water aquifers have been affected and have also made

underground water inaccessible. Some communities have reported loss of wild animal like Jonglei canal created a problem of the communities.  It attempted to separate communities and there were no ways of crossing the canal and this would have separated the communities and affected wildlife and livestock movement. A lot of wild animal died when they were trying to cross the Jonglei canal. Other key issues on environment have included;

  1. Overcrowding around limited safe water points and cause erosion.
  2. Environmental degradation has posed a serious danger in sanitation.
  3. Land mines have really polluted the environment and thee are resources that are not available for production because to the land mines. Routes have become longer as they try to maneuver and avoid land mine contamination.
  4. Wanton deforestation.
  5. Oil based mine spoils.
  6. wildlife human conflict
  7. Soil and wind erosion.

2.1.4 AMA’sSocial Environment.

The social environment in south Sudan today is disturbed by conflict, maiming, displacement, death and trauma.  The political conflict that erupted within SPLM in mid December 2013 has polarized the country. This polarization has taken both ethnic and ideological dimensions. At a glance it is seen as conflict between Dinka and Nuer but a closer looks reveal issues including governance ideology. The relationship between these 2 tribes in social places and as neighbors has been strained by the conflict. The social interaction that existed is reduced; business across the territories is interrupted.

Again the intermarriage relationship has been placed in dilemma as they ponder how to manage their relations across the ethnic divide.

Ethnicity constructed around Stereotypes brings tensions and conflict. In this region and in south Sudan in general when a kin is marrying a person is caused to make a contribution both socially and materially. Relatives come in each others aid by reason of being a kinsman. This was initially used for good intentions until politics and politicians,

 

ethnic chiefs and war came in. In pastoral communities were the cow is the centre of livelihood and the raiding others is considered an act of bravery, raiding is organized and encouraged.

“Ethnic identification is a sensitive, emotional issue, one that is easily manipulated.

Ethnicity can become part of the transition phenomena when people do not know how  to relate swiftly and correctly to rapid political change. In such times of uncertainty, it is easy general secretary of the National Council for Democracy in Africa’,

Politicians and warlords took advantage of this social fiber and used it for furthering their interests. So clans and ethnic groups raided each other and bad blood developed among the clans and clans started fighting. Before the events of December 15th 2013 there were conflicts mainly in Jonglei, Unity and Lake States these conflicts were related  and revenge.Overtime there evolved a social group of people not about tribes but about class and belonging to a social group (elites) of people who holds positions of power and respect in the government and in the society. They include military, the professionals (intellectuals), chiefs, elders, commissioners and governors, ministers, church leaders among others. This is opinion leaders and communities listen to them and hold their opinion in high esteem. However this group often misuses this position to exclude other who are not in their class and also that they could turn into corruption and bad practices not expected of them.

The communities also have age old traditional believes that are hindering education in the region and particularly girl child education. Girls are meant for bride price and education is considered pollution. For along time cultural conditioning has dictated that,women concentrate on reproductive roles of rearing children and looking after them.

They are considered children and their rights and opportunities are limited to those of children. They are socially excluded from decision making processes and access to productive resources. Those in authority consider themselves to have exclusive right to make decision in the exclusion of others. There is such exclusion. This environment does not give room for good governance.

The conflict over many years caused displacement and families were scattered to all over the world. People have learnt cultures, languages and different value systems so the way they do things have changed and marked a departure from the way social issues in the home societies are done. This has lead to culture shock, broken families and bitterness. Returns are many and increasing. Their ways of live changed and conformed to those of the countries and regions where they stayed during the war. They return to a totally new environment and some are finding it hard to cope with the culture and underdevelopment in this region. They are looked at with suspicion as threat to community on HIV aids. Other issues on social environment include;

1)  Early and forced marriage.

2)  Separation of families due to displacement, domestic violence conflict.

3)  High bride price, cattle raiding and revenge.

4)  Markings, tattoos which reinforce identity community-hood.

.2.1.5AMA’sTechnological and Information Management Environment.

Technological advancement has been witnessed in a small extend in the towns and the capital in Juba. Service providers MTN,  vivacell, , Gemtel, Zain among others have made breakthrough to offer limited service to town communities. People can now make telephone contacts. However this advancement is only employed on limited range within towns. The majority of rural communities have no access to network coverage and traditional runner, long range radios and V-sats and Satellite thuraya phones are used by a few government and NGO staff. The state governments are also starting to employ limited technology use with computers installed in offices and some with internet access through use of satellite. Networking and database technologies are yet to be employed to make work lighter.  Opportunities presented by technological advancement have not been taken. A few people are seen selling mobile phones, cyber cafes, but majority of these people are either form north Sudan or from the east African region. Technological advancement and the opportunities that came with it has not dawned on the local communities ad entrepreneurs. We are yet to see monetary transactions on mobile like that of safaricom

in Kenya, which has employed thousands of people and eased monetary transfers. We are yet to see local entrepreneurs dealing mobile phones and accessories a sector that employs thousand of people in the east African region. Farmers and farm produce trades are yet to take advantage of mobile technology because the framework has not been developed. FAO and Ministry of agriculture and forestry has tried and came up with communities.

There however exists abundant functional literacy in gun and ammunition technology. Someone in a rural village with no formal education can easily dismantle and assemble an AK 47 with the ease of a skilled professional. These people can including women can handle a gun with very high competence.

Other technology issues;

1)  Poor and government controlled telecommunication with mobile network and internet.

2)  Youth access to internet based technologies in limited areas.

3)  Patronized print media.

4)  Poor computer functional literacy.

 

2.1.6AMA’s Security Environment. 

The  security  environment is war  qualified  by  over 1000  deaths. It is estimated  far over 10,000  deaths, 1.5M  displacement  100,000  in UN  camps. The  political conflict within SPLM  quickly spread  to  4  states  including  Juba. The  increased  military operations by  both  SPLA  and  SPLA  in opposition  allowed  leakage  of  weapons to  the communities  fueling  for more conflict  especially in Lakes  state  and  greater Akobo counties. Generally, the conflict increased access to guns and ammunitions and rekindle community conflicts that were ongoing and latent. Killings in Juba and elsewhere rekindle historical rivalries between Dinka and Nuer. There is hate, stereotyping, resentment and fight with slightest provocation.

Notwithstanding the country political competition,, there is resource-based conflict within communities, between communities and across states before December 2013. These communities’ the most affected by conflict mainly involving the Lou Nuer of greater Akobo and the Murle of Pibor over cattle raids, child abduction and resultant vicious cycle of revenge. The Wunlit triangle which includes Warrap, Unity and Lakes states was seen as the second with issues of cattle raids, killings, revenge and political conflict involving Tonjeast, Tonj south, Mapel, Mayiandit, Koch, Payinjiar and Mayom counties among other. Smaller scale conflicts involved land and border disputes across entire south Sudan.

The  political conflict started  in Juba  on  December the  15th  and  quickly spread  to mainly  Upper Nile states, the  SPLA  in Jongolei, Unity  and  Upper Nile divided-up and fought within itself on  ethnic  lines. In  Wunlit  triangle,  the  disputed  Madol Payam  was quickly  attacked  from  Tonj East.  Payinjiar was also attacked. Inter-clan  fighting intensified  in Lake  states involving  Awarial  County, Yirol East,  Yirol West,  Cuibet,Rumbek center. In Warrap, Tonj East Tonj north and Gogrial .

In Upper Nile, Bailiet county was devastated by combined white army from Nasir and Lou Nuer, Shilluk kingdom was also devastated by attackers from old Fangak. In totality, no county got spared in the whole greater Upper Nile with exception of Maiwut and Longachok counties on Ethiopian borders partly because of their distance from center of conflict. While in basis,greet ourselves in the streets of Nairobi, though we understand the degree of grievances and anger, since their relatives were killed in Juba, many of the Nuer students dropped out of schools and colleges because of shortage of school fees,families moved out of rented houses and went to refugees camp in Kakuma. The otherproblem is whoever tries to work for peace is labeled by other colleague as a traitor.

Despite this there are some individuals and institutions working for reconciliation..There has been  inter  and  intra  clan  conflict over resources at the  micro  level.Among the common causes have been cattle raiding, rapes, girl eloping and failure to return dowry  after  divorce.  Although  these  may  appear of  lower importance  to  an outsider they account for 70 % of insecurity in regions where AMA is operating

Other Key security issues include;

1)  Grievances, revenge, greed, cattle raiding.

2)  Proliferation of arms.

3)  Gender based conflict and domestic violence.

4)  Foreign forces in the country.

5)  A lot of military presence in the communities.

6)  Minors recruited in the military.

2.1.7 Geophysical Positioning of Upper Nile region  and South Sudan .

The geophysical positioning of south Sudan and Upper Nile region presents some challenges. The long term borderline dispute with Sudan creates vulnerabilities for south Sudan and Upper Nile region in particular. In the recent past the insecurity in Southern Kordofan spilled to Unity state and other northern frontier. Sudan bombed areas in the upper Nile region in pursuit of SPLM north rebels.

The resource based conflict created by the transhumance nature of Sudanese Arab Misserya  who  has  annual transhumance  from  Sudan  to  Upper  Nile  region  creating conflict over resources, environmental degradation  due to over grazing. This happens due to the region being near Sudan and in their route of migration. The landlocked south Sudan has to pumps her petroleum through Sudan. Due their political and other reasons this project suffers stoppages and economic losses.

 

Upper Nile region  is the  area  with  most of oil. This has  made  the  communities  to suffer conflict and pollution due to oil prospecting. Other issues related to geophysical positioning include;

1)  Upper Nile is flat and prone to floods.

2)  Sudanese refugees in Ida and Maban risk security of communities as Sudanese authorities pursue and punish rebels.

3)  Positioning of upper Nile far from juba makes logistics and supplies expensive.

4)  The livestock based livelihoods within all the communities in the region and neighborhood makes cattle raiding a relied on enterprise and systemic cause of conflict and revenge.

5)  Regional placement to eastern Africa made Uganda military to intervene and IGAD mandated or obliged to intervene in the conflict in south Sudan.

6)  Issues of LRA and JEM attacks in Bentiu,- UXO  found in Bentiu had indicated that they were made in Sudan, Militias in Nuba and issues of  SPLM north.

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